Abstract Background: Data from recent meta-analyses question an association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, the prognostic effect of dietary SFA in patients with established CVD treated with modern conventional medication has not been extensively studied. Objective: We investigated the associations between self-reported dietary SFA intake and risk of subsequent coronary events and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: This study included patients who participated in the Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention Trial and completed a 169-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire after coronary angiography. Quartiles of estimated daily intakes of SFA were related to risk of a primary composite endpoint of coronary events (unstable angina pectoris, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, and coronary death) and separate secondary endpoints (total acute myocardial infarction, fatal coronary events, and all-cause death) with use of Cox-regression analyses. Results: This study included 2412 patients (81% men, mean age: 61.7 y). After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, a total of 292 (12%) patients experienced at least one major coronary event during follow-up. High intake of SFAs was associated with a number of risk factors at baseline. However, there were no significant associations between SFA intake and risk of coronary events [age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.61, 1.18) for the upper vs. lower SFA quartile] or any secondary endpoint. Estimates were not appreciably changed after multivariate adjustments. Conclusions: There was no association between dietary intake of SFA and incident coronary events or mortality in patients with established CAD. J Nutr doi: 10.3945/jn.114.203505
Age-adjusted CHD mortality continuously declined between 1980 and 2007 in all these countries. The decline was accompanied by a constant fall in total cholesterol except Japan where total cholesterol continuously rose. In the birth cohort of individuals currently aged 50–69 years, levels of total cholesterol have been higher in Japan than in the USA, yet CHD mortality in Japan remained the lowest: > 67% lower in men and > 75% lower in women compared with the USA. The direction and magnitude of changes in other risk factors were generally similar between Japan and the other countries.